Symmetric key encryption and public-key encryption are the basis for any VPN, no matter how modest or convoluted, and that’s the answer to your question.
These are paired with at least one of the following protocols: L2TP, PPTP, OpenVPN, IPSec, and SSL.
Not all data is created equal, however, and neither is it protected in an identical manner. With that in mind, it’s important to understand A VPN tends to achieve two things: it secures the contents of your queries and their responses, and it obfuscates your identity by assigning it a random, unaffiliated address before sending any particular communications into the wilderness.
Even in an almost unfathomable scenario in which the encryption fails, there is just no forensically feasible way to track any intercepted data back to you through reverse engineering and whatnot.
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